Geomagnetic And Solar Indices Data Description
indices constitute data series aiming at describing at a planetary scale the magnetic activity, or some of its components.
The data series are homogeneous since 1932 for Kp and Ap, 1957 for Dst.
Three-Hour-Range Index K
K indicesisolate solar particle effects
on the earth's magnetic field; over a 3-hour period, they classify into disturbance levels the range of variation of the more
unsettled horizontal field component. Each activity level relates almost logarithmically to its corresponding disturbance
amplitude. Three-hour indices discriminate conservatively between true magnetic field perturbations and the quiet-day variations
produced by ionospheric currents.
K indicesrange in 28 steps from 0 (quiet) to 9 (greatly disturbed) with fractional parts expressed in thirds of
a unit. A K-value equal to 27, for example, means 2 and 2/3 or 3-; a K-value equal to 30 means 3 and 0/3 or 3 exactly; and
a K-value equal to 33 means 3 and 1/3 or 3+. The arithmetic mean of the K values scaled at the 13 observatories gives Kp.(
Lerwick (UK), Eskdalemuir (UK), Hartland (UK), Ottawa (Canada), Fredericksburg (USA), Meannook (Canada), Sitka (USA), Eyrewell
(New Zealand), Canberra (Aus- tralia), Lovo (Sweden), Brorfelde (Denmark), Wingst (Germany), and Niemegk (Germany).)
A 3-hourly "equivalent amplitude" index of local geomagnetic activity;
"a" is related to the 3-hourly K indexaccording to the following scale:
K = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
A daily index of geomagnetic activity derived as the average of the eight 3-hourly a indices.
Ap index:An averaged planetary ''A index'' based on data from a set of specific Kp stations.
a = 0 3 7 15 27 48 80 140 240 400
Dst (Disturbance Storm Time) equivalent equatorial magnetic
disturbance indices are derived from hourly scalings of low-latitude horizontal magnetic variation. They show the effect of
the globally symmetrical westward flowing high altitude equatorial ring current, which causes the "main phase" depression
worldwide in the H-component field during large magnetic storms. Unit - nT.
A qualitative estimate of overall level of magnetic activity for the day determined from
the sum of the eight Ap amplitudes. Cp ranges, in steps of one-tenth, from 0 (quiet) to 2.5 (highly disturbed).
A conversion of the 0-to-2.5 range of the Cp index to one digit between 0 and 9.
International Sunspot Number
Records contain the Zurich number
through December 31, 1980, and the International Brussels number thereafter.
Relative Sunspot Numbers
The relative sunspot number is an index of
the activity of the entire visible disk of the Sun. It is determined each day without reference to preceding days. Each isolated
cluster of sunspots is termed a sunspot group, and it may consist of one or a large number of distinct spots whose size can
range from 10 or more square degrees of the solar surface down to the limit of resolution (e.g., 1/25 square degree). The
relative sunspot number is defined as R = K (10g + s), where g is the number of sunspot groups and s is the total number of
distinct spots. The scale factor K (usually less than unity) depends on the observer and is intended to effect the conversion
to the scale originated by Wolf.
Ottawa 10.7-Cm 2800 MHz Solar Radio Flux
The sun emits
radio energy with a slowly varying intensity. This radio flux, which originates from atmospheric layers high in the sun's
chromosphere and low in its corona, changes gradually from day-to-day, in response to the number of spot groups on the disk.
Radio intensity levels consist of emission from three sources: from the undisturbed solar surface, from developing active
regions, and from short-lived enhancements above the daily level. Solar flux density at 2800 megaHertz has been recorded routinely
by radio telescope near Ottawa since February 14, 1947. Each day, levels are determined at local noon (1700 GMT) and then
corrected to within a few percent for factors such as antenna gain, atmospheric absorption, bursts in progress, and background
sky temperature. Beginning in June 1991, the solar flux density measurement source is Penticton, B.C., Canada.
The data contain fluxes from the entire solar disk at a frequency of 2800 megaHertz in units of 10 to the -22 Joules/second/square
meter/Hertz. Each number has been multiplied by 10 to suppress the decimal point. Three sets of fluxes - the observed,
the adjusted, and the absolute - are summarized. Of the three, the observed numbers are the least refined,
since they contain fluctuations as large as 7% that arise from the changing sun-earth distance. In contrast, adjusted
fluxes have this variation removed; the numbers in these tables equal the energy flux received by a detector located at the
mean distance between sun and earth. Finally, the absolute levels carry the error reduction one step further;
here each adjusted value is multiplied by 0.90 to compensate for uncertainties in antenna gain and in waves reflected from
Missing data will be represented as ---. The data are displayed as the flux value multiplied by ten (same as the table
format). For example, 1324 converts to 132.4 solar flux units for Jan 1, 1950.
Ottawa 10.7-Cm Solar Radio Flux Adjusted To 1 Au measured at 1700 UT daily and expressed in units of 10 to the -22 Watts/
meter sq/hertz. Observations began on February 14, 1947. From that date through December 31, 1973, the fluxes given here don't
reflect the revisions Ottawa made in 1966.
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