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GOES Satellites
    Introduction
    Space Environment Monitor
    Magnetic field
    Magnetometer Data Quality
    Energetic particles
    Energetic Particles data quality
    Energetic Particles Correction Algorithm
    X-Rays
    X-Rays Data Quality
    Acronyms
IMF and SWP
    Introduction
    Bx, By, Bz
    Ion density
    Flow speed
Geomagnetic and Solar Indices
    Introduction
    Kp-index
    Ap-index
    Cp-index
    C9-index
    DST-index
    International Sunspot Number
    Solar Radio Flux
Solar Data
    Introduction
    2800 MHz Solar Flux
    Relative Sunspot Number
    Group Sunspot Numbers
    Standard deviations
    Number of observations
Solar Images
    Introduction
    Solar X-Rays
    Solar H-Alpha
    Radio Heliographs
    Magnetogram
Ionospheric Data
    Introduction
    Vertical Incidence Soundings (Ionograms)
    Ionospheric Vertical Incidence Parameters
Geomagnetic Data
    Introduction
Space Weather Events
    Introduction
    X-ray Event Listings
    X-Rays
    X-rays Data Quality


Solar Data Description

2800 MHz Solar Flux

The sun emits radio energy with a slowly varying intensity. This radio flux, which originates from atmospheric layers high in the sun's chromosphere and low in its corona, changes gradually from day-to-day, in response to the number of spot groups on the disk. Radio intensity levels consist of emission from three sources: from the undisturbed solar surface, from developing active regions, and from short-lived enhancements above the daily level. Solar flux density at 2800 megaHertz has been recorded routinely by radio telescope near Ottawa since February 14, 1947. Each day, levels are determined at local noon (1700 GMT) and then corrected to within a few percent for factors such as antenna gain, atmospheric absorption, bursts in progress, and background sky temperature. Beginning in June 1991, the solar flux density measurement source is Penticton, B.C., Canada.

The data contain fluxes from the entire solar disk at a frequency of 2800 megaHertz in units of 10 to the -22 Joules/second/square meter/Hertz. Each number has been multiplied by 10 to suppress the decimal point. Three sets of fluxes - the observed, the adjusted, and the absolute - are summarized. Of the three, the observed numbers are the least refined, since they contain fluctuations as large as 7% that arise from the changing sun-earth distance. In contrast, adjusted fluxes have this variation removed; the numbers in these tables equal the energy flux received by a detector located at the mean distance between sun and earth. Finally, the absolute levels carry the error reduction one step further; here each adjusted value is multiplied by 0.90 to compensate for uncertainties in antenna gain and in waves reflected from the ground.

Missing data will be represented as ---. The data are displayed as the flux value multiplied by ten (same as the table format). For example, 1324 converts to 132.4 solar flux units for Jan 1, 1950.

Relative Sunspot Number

The relative sunspot number is an index of the activity of the entire visible disk of the Sun. It is determined each day without reference to preceding days. Each isolated cluster of sunspots is termed a sunspot group, and it may consist of one or a large number of distinct spots whose size can range from 10 or more square degrees of the solar surface down to the limit of resolution (e.g., 1/25 square degree). The relative sunspot number is defined as R = K (10g + s), where g is the number of sunspot groups and s is the total number of distinct spots. The scale factor K (usually less than unity) depends on the observer and is intended to effect the conversion to the scale originated by Wolf.

Group Sunspot Numbers (Rg)

Rg values were derived to provide a homogeneous record of solar activity from 1610 to 1995. Care was taken that the long-term changes are more self-consistent than are the changes using the Wolf Sunspot Numbers.

Standard deviations

Contains daily standard deviations of the Group Sunspot Numbers for 1610 to 1995. These numbers represent the random errors in the daily means.

Number of observations

The daily average number of observations per day used in forming the daily means.